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Flora of Samos island in Greece is rich in biodiversity distinguishing it from other islands of the Aegean. This is due to the microclimate of the island due the different winds: firstly, the winds from the sea form a humid and cool environment, secondly the dry, brash winds from mountains, warm the air, causing high temperatures. Lastly, winds from the highlands decrease the temperature and raise humidity.
Samos’ abundant flora includes 102 plant families with species and subspecies reaching a number of 1,500. There is a large region in the north part of the island covered in pine forests while in other parts of the island, mostly in high altitude areas, are more forests with a variety of plants such as Quercus coccifera, Robus sp., Lonicera sp., Myrtus, Erica verticialata etc. The vegetation revegetated quickly after the big fire a few years ago.
There is an abundance of ‘wild’ plants but also large cultivated areas with fruits and vegetables. The largest and most fundamental cultivation on the island is the olive tree, with Throubolia the most common kind. The olives are used for both eating and the production of olive oil. Secondary to olive and oil production is the cultivation of vineyards to produce wine, almost exclusively from the white moshato Samos grape. Samos wines have made the island popular internationally.
In addition to olives and grapes flora of Samos island in Greece includes citrus fruits also thrive in lower altitudes mostly in the area of Mylon. Other fruits grown on the island, like avocados, bananas, cherries and apples are produced in small quantities. On the island, there are horticultural and floricultural species grown organically in greenhouses.