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Samos’ fauna, like its flora, is plentiful, mostly because of the islands’ mountains, lush forests and the abundance of water. Samos’ animal kingdom is documented as having 139 species of birds, with 39 of them staying the whole year, 28 only in the winter, 26 of them making nests and 20 of undetermined activity.
Most known are hawks, owls, woodcocks, partridges, sea gulls, robins, blackbirds, throstles and others. In addition to birds there are many mammals, like rabbits, hedgehogs, jackal, species of Migalidon and many kinds of rodents, bats etc. Insects are in great numbers due to the lush vegetation. Lizards, like chameleons, kourkoudialos (that resembles a tiny crocodile), geckos and the Samian lizard exist only on Samos and in a particular region of Asia Minor. Several snakes also live on Samos, the longest of them being the Balkan Whip snake which reaches 2m in length, but not venomous. The most dangerous snakes on the island are vipers and astrits.
Amphibians like Brasco (Bufo Bufo) and Toad (Bufo viridis), Bakakas (Rana ridibunda) and smaller populations of tree frogs (Hyla arborea) can be found. There are also water turtles and sometimes, on the Marathokampos beaches, sea turtles make their appearance, as do sea calves. Seals (Monachus monachus), still appear on the islands’ rocky beaches of the northwest, but in much smaller numbers than before. This is why the area is a protected conservation area and part of the biological sea park. The main factor decreasing the seal population is lack of food due to overfishing.